Information about South Korea
An independent kingdom for much of its long history, Korea was occupied by Japan beginning in 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War.
In 1910, Tokyo formally annexed the entire Peninsula. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the
United States in 1945. After World War II, a democratic-based government (Republic of Korea, ROK) was set up in the
southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a communist-style government was installed in the north
(Democratic People's Republic of Korea, DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53), US troops and UN forces fought
alongside ROK soldiers to defend South Korea from a DPRK invasion supported by China and the Soviet Union.
A 1953 armistice split the peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. PARK Chung-hee took
over leadership of the country in a 1961 coup. During his regime, from 1961 to 1979, South Korea achieved rapid
economic growth, with per capita income rising to roughly 17 times the level of North Korea.
South Korea held its first free presidential election under a revised democratic constitution in 1987, with
former ROK Army general ROH Tae-woo winning a close race. In 1993, KIM Young-sam (1993-98) became
South Korea's first civilian president. South Korea today is a fully functioning modern democracy.
LEE Myung-bak (2008-2013) pursued a policy of global engagement , highlighted by Seoul's hosting of the
G-20 summit in November 2010 and the Nuclear Security Summit in March 2012. South Korea also secured a
non-permanent seat (2013-14) on the UN Security Council and will host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games.
President PARK Geun-hye took office in February 2013 and is South Korea's first female leader. Serious
tensions with North Korea have punctuated inter-Korean relations in recent years, including the
North's sinking of the South Korean warship Cheonan in March 2010 and its artillery attack on
South Korean soldiers and citizens in November 2010.